From 1890-1895, jewelry case maker and social visionary William R. George first developed the concept of a fresh start program for delinquent and abandoned children through his exposure to the “fresh air camps” movement, which gave tough boys and girls from the New York City slums a summer country living experience. George observed that while the fresh air camps were a good idea on paper, they did not improve the attitudes and behavior of these young petty criminals. He came to believe “that all boys and girls would derive inestimable benefit from spending a few years in a village-type setting in which the government was conducted by themselves, and where the conditions — economic, civic, and social — were the same as an ordinary village. His chief interest was to develop the character of young people. He theorized that when a citizen had property earned by himself, he would want laws to protect it … Property was looked upon as the basis of responsible citizenship, available to those with industry and initiative, qualities to be learned in a free enterprise and competitive economy. Each boy and girl was put into conditions of actual life and allowed to work out his own destiny.” (A History of the George Junior Republic in Pennsylvania by Allene H. Masterson, 1970)

William R. George

In other words, youth would be taught the principles of self-government, self-control, and responsible behavior by giving them the power and duties of citizenship in a miniature state. George called these life-changing institutions “junior republics.”

The creation of George Junior Republic of Western Pennsylvania was the result of the serendipitous coming together of two groups of men on a mission. In March 1907, George was visiting the Thatcher School in Ojai, CA, where he met Dr. Morgan Barnes, a teacher at the school. The two men had an opportunity to discuss the junior republic movement and Barnes, a Mercer County native, became an enthusiastic believer in George’s work and recommended that George consider Grove City as a location for his next republic. 

Over the past 110-year history, George Junior Republic has expanded to include a comprehensive organizational structure.  The operations and business of George Junior Republic are conducted through six corporations, all of which are 501(c)(3) designated charities.

George Junior Republic and Affiliates is the corporate name of the “parent” organization and is the only George Junior Republic corporation registered as a charity with the Pennsylvania Bureau of Charitable Organizations. This parent corporation controls the other five corporations by virtue of its powers to elect and remove their officers, approve changes to bylaws and articles, approve actions not in the ordinary course of their business, and approve budgets. The board is governed by a 12-person board of directors.

The five corporations that operate under George Junior Republic and Affiliates (the parent corporation) are:

  • George Junior Republic in Pennsylvania
  • George Junior Republic in Indiana
  • George Junior Republic Preventative Aftercare
  • George Junior Republic Realty 
    • Provides oversight to the real estate and physical plant that supports the residential services of George Junior Republic in Pennsylvania and George Junior Republic in Indiana 
  • Republic Risk Retention Group
    • Provides charitable support and oversight to George Junior Republic and Affiliates for general and professional liability losses

George Junior Republic in Pennsylvania operates the residential program on the 500-acre campus located in Grove City, Pennsylvania. This program has nearly 600 employees. 

This corporation is governed by a 12-person board.  


  • The educational component of GJR in PA is the largest program for delinquent and dependent youth in Pennsylvania and is one of the largest in the United States that is fully staffed and implemented by the local school district Grove City Area School District.
  • In 2017, GJR in PA received the Governor’s Award for the Arts and was selected by the Pennsylvania Citizens for the Arts as one of three projects of the year.
  • Since 1988, GJR in PA has supported the post-secondary education needs of graduates and alumni.

George Junior Republic in Indiana operates a group home in Gas City, Indiana, and community-based programs across the state of Indiana. 

This corporation is governed by a four-person board.

GJR in IN provides a continuum of services, including group home residential, independent living for older youth, and home-based services across the Indiana.

George Junior Republic Preventative Aftercare operates multiple community based programs in both Pennsylvania and Ohio. With over sixty staff members, services range from school based programs to office-based therapy.

This corporation is governed by a five-person board.

In 2014, Edinboro University of Pennsylvania completed a five-year outcome study of the program.

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